This page contains all of the wiki assignments from the modules, and is thus, a dead page. The page entitled Justin C's Section contains only information pertinent to our project.

Module 14 Assignment:
The article that I read for this assignment focused on the relationship between the countries of Dilmun and Mesopotamia during the first millennium BC. The authors of the article discussed whether or not the relations between the two countries were trade based or diplomatic in nature. The only written evidence available is a series of correspondence, so the authors examined the archaeological record for further insight. They concluded that the relationship was indeed centered heavily around trade, but nevertheless, diplomats were received by both nations. This article proved very useful for my area of research, as it explained the nature of trade between Dilmun and Mesopotamia.

Eidem, Jesper & Flemming Hojlund. "Trade or Diplomacy? Assyria & Dilmun in the 18th Century BC." World Archaeology, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Feb., 1993) pp. 441-48



Module 13 Assignment:
The article that I read for this assignment discussed the development of trade in Mesopotamia in the fifth and fourth millennia B.C. The author, Joan Oates, explained that Mesopotamian trade abroad began as early as the fifth millennia, when powerful city-states such as Uruk sought to expand their territorial borders. In doing so, they created trade outposts in areas as diverse as Anatolia, Syria, and Iran. Furthermore, these outposts, which were more or less colonies, aimed to secure raw commodites that were unavailable in Mesopotamia at the time. This article is very useful for my area of research, as it covers in great detail the complex nature of Mesopotamian trade abroad.

Oates, Joan. "Trade and Power in the Fifth and Fourth Millennia BC: New Evidence from Northern Mesopotamia. World Archaeology. 24:3, (Feb, 1993). pp. 403-22. Taylor & Francis, Ltd.



Countries that Engaged in Trade with Early Mesopotamian Civilizations:
Egypt:
Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations first began to trade with one another during Egypt's predynastic period (Kantor 239). Based upon the archaeological evidence, the trade appears to have been one-sided, with Egyptians favoring Mesopotamian items and not vice-versa (239). Egypt imported not only items - such as the cylinder seal - from Mesopotamia, but also the custom of "constructing niched brick buildings," which the Egyptians used to build their own niched patterns and false doors (239). Nevertheless, by the time of the Middle Kingdom Egypt relied less on imports from Mesopotamia, preferring instead to craft their own devices, such as the use of the scarab as a seal instead of the Mesopotamian cylinder (239).

Source:
Kantor, Helene. "Further Evidence for Early Mesopotamian Relations with Egypt." Journal of New Eastern Studies, Vol.11, No. 4 (Oct, 1952), pp. 239-250. University of Chicago Press.

Iran:
Mesopotamian trade with Iran may have begun as early as in the fourth millennium BC, during a period in which southern Mesopotamia experienced a major surge in urbanized settlements (382). Many sites in the Iranian plateau, such as the ancient city of Susa, became focal points for Mesopotamian trade networks (382). In excavating these areas, archaeologists have found items that bear a strong resemblance to those used in Mespotamian methods of organization (383). The most common items unearthed include clay commodity tokens, bullae, and numerical tablets (384). These symbols were gradually replaced by a native Iranian script known as Proto-Elamite (384). Still, trade with Mesopotamia continued into and throughout the third millennium BC. (384).

Source:
Potts, T. F. "Patterns of Trade in Third-Millennium BC Mesopotamia and Iran." World Archaeology, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Feb., 1993), pp. 379-384.


Google Earth Image: Uruk - Susa Trade Route

Uruk_and_Susa.jpg



Journal Article Relevant to Our Project:
Dynamics of Trade in the Ancient Mesopotamian "World System"
Christopher Edens
American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 94, No. 1 (Mar., 1992), pp. 118-139
Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the American Anthropological Association
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/680040?&Search=yes&term=routes&term=trade&term=mesopotamian&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3D%2528mesopotamian%2Btrade%2529%2BAND%2B%2528routes%2529%26gw%3Djtx%26prq%3D%2528mesopotamian%2Btrade%2529%2BAND%2Bjid%253A%2528j100444%2BOR%2Bj100476%2529%26hp%3D25%26wc%3Don&item=2&ttl=927&returnArticleService=showArticle

Trade Routes
Imported Materials
Exported Materials
Currency
Interactions with Other Cultures
Systems of Communication

Our group seems to be leaning towards "trade" as a topic for our wiki. Since trade is such a broad topic, it would be best if our group focused on specific areas. For instance, trade routes are a requisite for trading, so we could discuss both known and plausible routes. Similarly, as trade depends upon the exchange of items, we could write about the materials that were exported from Mesopotamia, as well as those that were imported.

Module 8 Assignment:
"The floodplains along the Nile constitute an important but as yet little utilized series of laboratories for comparative study of the origins and interaction of ancient civilizations."
“Kerma: The Rise of an African Civilization,” Bruce G. Trigger, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1. (1976), pp. 1-21.